английский 1 курс. Основные правила употребления артиклей
1.1. Основные правила употребления артиклей.
1.1.1. Употребление артиклей с именами нарицательными.
Неопределенный артикль употребляется:
- с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе, когда имеется в виду любой представитель данного класса лиц или предметов:
They live in a lovely house.
I’m reading a good book at the moment.
She’s expecting a baby.
- когда существительное служит в предложении именной частью составного сказуемого и используется, чтобы описать, кем или чем является лицо или предмет, о котором говорится в предложении:
My brother is an engineer.
That’s an instrument for measuring distance.
- когда существительное служит приложением:
John Bolton, a student of our University, took the first place in the chess tournament.
- если перед существительным, употребляемом в общем смысле, можно поставить слово “every”
A computer can quickly make calculations, store and rearrange information.
Определенный артикль употребляется:
- перед существительными в единственном или множественном числе, когда из ситуации или контекста ясно, какое именно лицо или предмет имеется в виду:
The room was in a mess. The books were on the floor and on the chairs…
Where is the key?
Mind the baby! She’s near the fire.
- перед существительными, являющимися единственными в своем роде или в данной обстановке (the Queen, the Earth, the Atlantic):
The sun was getting warmer.
When goods have been loaded on a ship, the captain signs a receipt called a bill of lading.
- перед названием определенных общественных мест, если они употребляются в общем смысле:
I went to the theatre last night.
I’m going to the library.
I have to go to the post office.
Но: There isn't a theatre in this town. Where is a post office?
- с существительными в единственном числе для обозначения целого класса предметов
The thermometer becomes useless if the fluid in it either freezes or boils.
The telephone was invented in the 19-th century.
The pine grows in northern countries.
Однако, в этих случаях артикль не употребляется со словом man. Слово woman чаще употребляется с определенным артиклем, хотя может употребляться и без артикля:
Woman is man’s helpmate.
Определенный артикль может заменить указательные местоимения this и that. Иногда его следует перевести словом “этот”:
He is going to take a post-graduate course. I like the idea.
Упр.1.1.1.a. Поставьте существительные во множественное число, сделав все необходимые преобразования в предложении.
a. A dog is an animal.
b. A potato is a vegetable.
c. A pencil is like a pen.
d. A ruler is a thin rectangular wooden or plastic strip.
e. A test-tube is a hollow glass tube.
f. A writer writes a book.
g. The man who is sitting there is my friend.
h. The girl in that room is my sister.
i. The boy does his work well.
Упр.1.1.1.b. Поставьте существительные в единственное число, сделав все необходимые преобразования в предложении.
a. Horses are animals.
b. Boots are kinds of shoes.
c. Watches are small clocks.
d. Novels are books.
e. Children are not always good.
f. Stockings are long socks.
g. Schools are large buildings.
**Упр.1.1.1.c.Поставьте а/an, где необходимо.
a. I haven’t got computer. e. Do you keep record of the results?
b. I am not chemist, I am biologist. f. I work in theoretical research team.
c. You made very bad mistake. g. I’ve got very good idea.
d. It is convincing result. h. It is standard method.
Упр.1.1.1.d. Поставьте the , где необходимо.
a. Which city is ___ capital of ___your country?
b. What is ___largest city in ___world?
c. Our apartment is on ___third floor.
d. Help! Fire! Somebody, call ___fire brigade.
e. Who was ___first man to walk on ___moon?
f. ”Where is ___your dictionary?” “ It’s on ___top shelf on ___right.”
g. We live in ___country, about five miles from ___nearest village.
h. ___Prime Minister is ___most important person in ___British government.
i. I don’t know everybody in ___this photograph. Who is ___man on ___left?
j. It was a very nice hotel but I don’t remember ___name.
k. I didn’t like her ___first time I met her.
Упр.1.1.1.e. Поставьте a/an, the , где необходимо.
a. I turned off ___ light, opened ____ door and went out.
b. Excuse me, can I ask ____ question, please?
c. Alan is ____ best player in our football team.
d. How far is it from here to ____ airport?
e. Enjoy your holiday and don’t forget to send me ____ postcard!
f. Have you got ____ ticket for ____ concert tomorrow night?
g. Yesterday I bought ____ jacket and ____ shirt.____ jacket was cheap but ____ shirt was expensive.
a. What is ____ name of ____ director of ____ film we saw ____ last night?
i. “Where are _____ children?” “They’re in ____ garden.”
j. My sister’s _____ teacher in ____ school near Leicester. She has three children, two girls and ____ boy. ____ girls are in her class at school, but ____ boy isn’t old enough for school yet.
k. Jane and Bill are ____ very nice couple. She has ____ clothes shop, and he works in ____ office in ____ centre of town.
l. “Where are my shoes?” “On ____ floor in ____ kitchen.”
m. “How much are the driving lessons?” “Fifteen pounds ____ hour.”
n. When you come to bed, can you put ____ cat out and turn off ____ light?
o. I went to ____ restaurant last night.
p. What’s _____ name of ____ restaurant we went to last night?
Упр.1.1.1.f. Выберите правильный вариант употребления артикля the.
a. Potatoes / The potatoes are not expensive.
b. This is a good meal. Potatoes / The potatoes are very nice.
c. Everybody needs friends / the friends.
d. Jan doesn’t go to parties / the parties very often.
e. Children / The children learn things / the things very quickly.
f. I enjoy eating in restaurants / the restaurants.
g. I enjoy taking photographs / the photographs. It’s my hobby.
h. I must show you photographs / the photographs I took when I was on holiday.
**Упр.1.1.1g. Если перед такими существительными, как method, theory, effect, device и т.п. стоит имя собственное в притяжательном падеже, то артикль не употребляется:
Seitz’s hypothesis, Whipple’s model.
Если имя собственное стоит в общем падеже, то употребляется определенный артикль:
the Holl effect, the Boltzman factor, the Gerrish drive, the Coulomb field etc.
Поставьте the, где необходимо.
a. The DNA was examined by ____ Klein-Smith method.
b. ____ Wilson’s model has been applied.
c. ____ Hodgkin-Huxley equations modified by Dodge have been solved.
d. The system is studied by ___ Smith’s method.
e. Measurements performed on Bi-Te alloys are compared with Seeback coefficients (S) using ___ Kelvin’s second relation P=ST.
1.1.2. Другие случаи употребления неопределенного артикля.
- В некоторых случаях неопределенный артикль сохранил значение числительного one.
He did not say a word.
A complete vibration or oscillation means a round trip.
The velocity of light is 186,300 miles a second.
The case weighs a (one) hundred pounds.
A stitch in time saves nine.
- Неопределенный артикль обычно стоит перед существительным или его определением:
- в восклицательных предложениях типа: What a beautiful picture! What a clever man!
- перед исчисляемым существительным в единственном числе после such, quite и rather:
It is rather a long story. She is such a clever girl!
(В последних двух случаях перед исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе и перед неисчисляемыми существительными артикль отсутствует.)
Однако, неопределенный артикль может стоять между прилагательным и существительным в единственном числе, если ему предшествуют усилительные частицы и местоимения, типа what, such, many, quite, rather, so и too:
It is not so simple a problem as it is seems.
It is too urgent a matter to postpone.
Only later was it discovered what fruitful a theory it was.
Однако: Such a laborious procedure is obviously not suitable for routine identifications.
- Неопределенный артикль используется также в ряде сочетаний и выражений:
обозначающих количество: a lot of, a great deal of, a good deal of, a great number of, a good many, a great many; a few, a little;
с предлогами: at a time when; at a time; for a long time; in a loud voice; on a large scale; as a result of; as a matter of fact;
в сочетании с глаголами: to be a success / in a hurry; it is a pity; to have a mind / a cold / a good time / a look / a headache; to take a seat; to go for a walk; to make a living и др.
Упр.1.1.2.a. Поставьте a/an, где необходимо.
a. It is ___ pleasure to do ___ business with such ___ efficient organization.
b. I have ___ headache.
c. I have ___ pain in my shoulder.
d. You must be strong in ___ mind and body.
e. If they had ___ mind to, they could easily get it published..
f. Oh, I know there’s no danger, but I’m ____ little frightened all the same.
g. ___ Little of the equipment was standardized.
h. It is possible to make ___ very good living from being a businessman.
i. The quality of ___ urban living has been damaged by excessive noise levels.
j. He was one of ___ few men of science who never terrified me, probably because he never behaved like ___ doctor.
1.1.3. Употребление артиклей при наличии определения.
Когда существительное имеет при себе определение, выделяющее лицо или предмет из всех лиц или предметов данного класса, оно употребляется с определенным артиклем:
The water inside the pipe does not meet the pressure of the air.
Когда определение выражено определительным придаточным предложением, причастным оборотом или предложным оборотом, то:
- при наличии ограничивающего определения существительное употребляется с определенным артиклем: He knocked at the door of a very neat house.
The things that I have come to me quite by accident.
Show me the telegram which was received yesterday.
This is the book you asked for.
- при наличии классифицирующего определения существительное в единственном числе употребляется с неопределенным артиклем, а во множественном числе - без артикля:
A letter which is written in pencil is difficult to read.
Vessels built for the transportation of oil are called tankers.
- описательное определение не влияет на выбор артикля, и существительное употребляется с определенным или неопределенным артиклем или с местоимениями some, any на основании общих правил: I went to the door where they were waiting for us.
Last summer I spent in a small village, which I thought to be a nice place to live in.
We have ordered some engines of 2,000 H.P. each.
В сочетании “существительное + of + существительное” употребление артиклей зависит от того, говорится ли о знакомом предмете или лице, о ситуативно определенных предметах или лицах. Сравните:
a book of a student (одна из книг какого-то студента)
the books of a student (эти книги какого-то студента)
a book of the student (одна из книг знакомого студента)
the books of the student (эти книги знакомого студента)
the book of the student (эта книга знакомого студента)
the books of students (эти книги каких-то студентов)
Упр.1.1.3.a. Переведите следующие словосочетания на английский язык.
a. работа какого-то автора; знание какого-либо предмета; статьи какого-либо ученого; эти данные авторов; студенты какого-либо университета; человек науки; учитель математики.
b. горы Крыма; металлы Урала; электростанции на Ангаре; Академия Наук Украины; леса Сибири; многие зоны (area) нашей планеты.
c. история искусства; прогресс науки; важность образования; степень (degree) кандидата наук; формы растительной жизни (vegetable life); интерес к (for) экологии; население планеты.
d. вагоны поезда; средства транспорта; цель (perpose) визита; служащие (clerk) гостиницы.
Упр.1.1.3.b. Поставьте артикль, где необходимо.
a. ___ chair on which you are sitting is not comfortable.
b. There is ___ man waiting to see Mr Smith.
c. ___ man whom Mr Smith telephoned this morning is here now.
d. I should like to find ___ good book to read tonight.
e. ___ book which I am reading now is a very good one.
f. ___ book which gave me the greatest pleasure was “War and Peace”.
g. Have you ___ cigarette?
h. John threw away ___ cigarette he was smoking.
i. Peter put ___ letter he had just received into his pocket.
j. I must write ___ letter.
*Упр.1.1.3.c. Поставьте артикль, где необходимо.
a. Number ___ hundred and two, ___ house next door to us, is for sale. It’s quite ___ nice house with ___ big rooms. ___ back windows look out on ___ park.
b. Professor Jones, ___ man who discovered ___ new drug that everyone is talking about, refused to give ___ press conference.
c. Peter Piper, ___ student in ____ professor’s college, asked him why he refused to talk to ___ press.
d. ___ ship you were speaking about has just come onto ___ port. She has been at ___ sea for ___ long time.
Look: ____ captain has just come on ___ deck.
**Упр.1.1.3.d. Поставьте артикль, где необходимо.
a. This is a rather crude criterion of ___ purity.
b. The technique of ___ paper chromatography was cited above.
c. The temperature of ___ solution should be controlled within half a degree or so.
d. Addition of, say, ___ halogen molecule to benzene leads to a dihydrobenzene derivative.
e. Proof of ___ formula for d-galactose is too involved to be given here.
f. The direction of ___ rearrangement will depend on two matters, which have to be taken in order.
g. In the light of ___ present-day knowledge of ___ molecular structure, much of this material is now incorrect.
h. The hypothesis of ___ intermediate compound formation traces its origin as back as 1808.
1.1.4. Употребление артикля с неисчисляемыми существительными.
a) Употребление артикля и местоимений some и any с именами существительными вещественными.
Имена существительные вещественные употребляются:
- без артикля, когда речь идет о веществе в общем смысле: We can’t live without water. Gas is cheaper than electricity.
и когда одно вещество противопоставляется другому: Which do you prefer: tea or coffee?
- с местоимениями some и any, когда речь идет о каком-то неопределенном количестве вещества: Bring me some water. Isn’t there any sugar in the sugar basin?
- с определенным артиклем, когда речь идет об определенном количестве вещества, когда имеется определение, выделяющее определенное количество вещества, или из ситуации ясно, о каком именно количестве идет речь: I forgot to pay the bill and now the gas has been cut off. The milk I bought yesterday has turned sour. The ore discovered by the expedition is of a high quality. The nickel was probably inessential in the reaction.
- с неопределенным артиклем, когда имеется в виду порция вещества:
Could you give me a coffee and a sandwich?
Употребление артикля при наличии классифицирующего и описательного определений, а также прилагательного в превосходной степени не отличается от его употребления с нарицательными существительными: Silk which is used for the aviation industry must be of the highest quality. Bulgaria exports tobacco, which is one of the stable agricultural products of the country. This is the best wine I have ever drunk.
b) Употребление артикля и местоимений some и any с именами существительными отвлеченными.
Артикль не употребляется перед названиями научных дисциплин, видов спорта, искусств:
J.Bonner earned a BA in chemistry and mathematics from the University of Utah. Do you play chess?
Имена существительные отвлеченные употребляются:
- без артикля, когда они выражают отвлеченные понятия в общем смысле:
While there is life there is hope. Knowledge is power.
- с определенным артиклем, когда они имеют при себе определение, относящее это понятие к какому-либо лицу или предмету: He was the hope of his parents. I like the music of this ballet.
- с местоимениями some и any, когда речь идет о неопределенной степени качества:
There is some difference between these two samples. He did not show any fear.
- с неопределенным артиклем, когда речь идет о разновидности качества или чувства:
He has a cleverness quite of his own. He showed a patience that I had never expected of him.
- с неопределенным артиклем, когда имеются существительные period, population, distance, height, salary и др. с последующим предлогом of + числительное + существительное: He has been working here for a period of 2 years.
c) Отсутствие артикля перед именами существительными нарицательными - исчисляемыми и неисчисляемыми.
- перед существительным, имеющим при себе другой определитель: My room is large. This book is interesting.
- перед исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе, когда в единственном числе следовало бы употребить неопределенный артикль: This plant is engaged in the manufacture of pumps. They are hard working students. Squares have four sides.
These are such interesting books!
Следует также помнить, что многие существительные имеют как отвлеченное, так и конкретное вещественное значение:
medicine a medicine
glass a glass
iron an iron
opera an opera
painting a painting
radio a radio
tin a tin
Упр.1.1.4.a. В выделенных словах укажите правильные варианты употребления артикля the.
a. ”Where’s coffee / the coffee?” It’s in the cupboard.
b. Tennis / The tennis is a very popular sport
c. We went for a swim in the river. Water / The water was very cold.
d. I don’t like swimming in cold water / the cold water.
e. You must visit the art gallery. Paintings / The paintings are very beautiful.
f. Money / The money doesn’t always bring happiness / the happiness.
g. English / The English is the language of international business.
h. Women / The women are often better teachers than men / the men.
i. In Britain coffee / the coffee is more expensive than tea / the tea.
j. We had a very nice meal in that restaurant. Cheese / The cheese was especially good.
k. Most people / The most people still believe that marriage / the marriage and family life / the family life are the basis of our society.
l. They got married but marriage / the marriage wasn’t successful.
m. I know someone who wrote a book about life / the life of Gandhi.
n. Life / the life would be very difficult without electricity / the electricity.
o. Do you know people / the people who live next door?
p. Are you interested in art / the art or architecture / the architecture?
q. Two of the biggest problems facing our society are crime / the crime and unemployment / the unemployment.
r. I hate violence / the violence.
Упр.1.1.4.b. Обратите внимание на разницу в употреблении артиклей в следующих парах предложений:
My daughter is at school. The meeting will be held at the school.
He was rushed to hospital immediately. I’m going to the hospital to visit him.
То есть, употребление артикля перед словами типа university, school, hospital, church, prison и т.д. подразумевает, что говорящий имеет в виду здание. Употребление этих же существительных без артикля означает, что они рассматриваются как учреждения в общем смысле.
Поставьте a, an или the, где необходимо.
a. Our children attend ……….. very good school.
b. Some people think they know about education just because they were once at ……… school.
c. People who spend time in ………….. prison rapidly become institutionalized.
d. As soon as the riot broke out, police surrounded ………. prison.
e. A lot of people think ………… prison should be just like any other building.
f. The trial attracted a lot of attention and …………. court was crowded.
g. A lot of people have been taken to …………. court for failing to pay local taxes.
h. Though it’s a small town, it has ……… school, ……. church and ……… court.
i. ____ youngest brother is at ____ school now.
j. She is at ____ school. If you go to ___ school by ____ tram, you will be just in ___ time to meet her.
**Упр.1.1.4.c. Поставьте a, an или the, где необходимо.
a. ___ thermometer is ___ instrument for measuring ____ temperatures.
b. ___ temperature to-day is not so high as it was yesterday.
c. ___ observation and ___ experience are two great teachers.
d. ___ air is necessary for ___ life.
e. ___ length, ___ breadth and ___ height of ___ cube are equal.
f. Every machine requires some sort of ___ power to operate it.
g. ___ history is his subject. Especially ___ history of ___ Middle Ages.
h. There was ___ expression in his eyes that I could not understand.
i. He finished his work without ___ difficulty.
j. ___ task presented ___ difficulty, which we could not overcome at first.
k. He was not discouraged by ___ difficulty of ___ task.
Упр.1.1.4.d. Подчеркните правильный вариант в каждом предложении.
Пример: I’ve got some cigarettes but I haven’t got light / a light.
Light / the light travels faster than sound / the sound.
a. We’re having lamb / the lamb for lunch.
b. The sheep gave birth to lamb / a lamb in the middle of the night.
c. Would you like cake / a cake?
d. No, thanks. I don’t like cake / a cake.
e. This suit is made of very fine cloth / the very fine cloth.
f. Can you get cloth / a cloth, please? I’ve just spilt tea / a tea on your carpet.
g. I went to a talk / talk on Russian revolution / the Russian revolution last night. It was very interesting.
h. There has been a talk / talk of redundancies at the British Shipping Company.
i. Service / a service in restaurants isn’t as good as it used to be.
j. The Health Service / Health Service is suffering from severe cutbacks.
k. The Times / Times is one of Britain’s oldest newspapers.
l. Time / the time and tide / the tide wait for no man. (поговорка)
m. I don’t usually like poetry / the poetry.
n. But here’s a poem / poem I do like.
o. Do you want an ice / ice in your whisky?
p. Ice / the ice at the North and South Poles is said to be melting little by little.
Упр.1.1.4.e. Поставьте a(an) или some, где необходимо. Подчеркните неисчисляемые существительные, которые можно использовать в словосочетании a piece of …
a. Can I offer you _______ advice?
b. I’ve just heard _______ interesting news.
_______ interesting announcement.
_______ interesting information.
c. There’s going to be ________ thunderstorm.
________ bad weather.
d. She is carrying ______ luggage.
e. We’ll need _______ accommodation.
_______ room for the night.
f. He’s got ______ strange equipment.
______ strange machine in his laboratory.
g. Do you mind if I put on _____ music?
*Упр.1.1.4.f. Объясните случаи употребления артиклей или их отсутствие.
a. Is there life after death?
She has lived a life of misery since the death of her husband.
b. There’s a feeling of love, joy, beauty and peace.
My new car’s a beauty. It’s a real joy to drive.
c. That numerous people have had Near Death Experiences is not in doubt.
There is still a doubt in my mind about whether it was the right thing to do.
d. The future looks bleak - drought, disease and economic collapse.
The drought in Africa last year cost many lives.
There is a drought every year.
1.1.5. Употребление артикля перед числительными.
a) Как правило, когда определение выражено количественным числительным, существительное употребляется без артикля: Two men entered the room.
Если же перед порядковым числительным употребляется артикль, то он приобретает смысловое значение: the two - эти два или оба - и часто обозначает полное количество объектов:
The close agreement of the six compounds is unlikely to be a coincidence.
b) Перед порядковым числительным обычно употребляется определенный артикль. Однако, когда порядковое числительное имеет значение другой, еще один или неизвестно общее число предметов, действий и пр. употребляется неопределенный артикль:
A third man (еще один) entered the room.
The same authors put forward a second correlation.
c) Артикль не употребляется перед существительным, если за ним следует его номер:
I'm waiting for tram 55.
The deduction of the equation you'll find in chapter 8 of the book.
Упр.1.1.5.a. Поставьте артикль, где необходимо.
a. Of all those to whom he appealed one was actually not in ____ position to do anything for him; another was afraid; ___ third was calculating eagerly to drive ____ hard bargain; ___ forth was too deliberate, anxious to have much time.
b. Two people would have to hold ___ chair, and ___ third would help him up on it, and ___ forth would hand him ___ nail, and ___ fifth would pass him up ___ hammer.
c. ___ professor Earle Fox ignored for ___ second time ___ buzzing signal from the secretary in ___ adjoining office.
d. Mr Pickwick was perfectly aware that ___ tree is ___ very dangerous neighbour in ___thunderstorm. He had ___ tree on his right, ___ tree on his left, ___ third before him, and ___ fourth behind.
e. Our apartment is on ___ third floor.
f. You are ___ forth visitor asking where ___ room 40 is there.
**Упр.1.1.5.b. Объясните случаи употребления артиклей перед числительными.
a. In brominating the ketone a second bromine atom enters the nucleus.
b. The four centres lie in a plane.
c. A second smaller step is also produced just before the final increase in current.
d. All the three oxygen atoms lie in a plane with the carbon atom.
e. Of the two reactions the second goes about a thousand times faster than the first.
f. The close agreement of the six compounds is unlikely to be a coincidence.
g. A second notation uses the lower-case letters d- and l- to denote configuration.
1.1.6. Переход прилагательных и причастий в существительные.
Это происходит, когда они употребляются с определенным артиклем, например:
The wounded were taken to the hospital.
The French are famous for their food.
Упр.1.1.6.a. Закончите предложения, используя the со следующими прилагательными:
rich sick blind poor injured unemployed dead
a. Braille is a system of reading and writing by touch for ____ .
b. Many people were killed in the plane crush. The bodies of ____ were taken away. ____ were taken to hospital.
c. Every English child knows the story of Robin Hood. It is said that he robbed ____ and gave the money to ____ .
d. Those people with jobs have enough money but life is not so easy for ____ .
e. Agnes has been a nurse all her life. She has spent her life caring for ___ .
Упр.1.1.6.b. Как вы назовете людей из этих стран?
один человек (a/an) народ в целом
1. Canada? a Canadian the Canadians
2. Germany? ___________ __________
1.1.7. Употребление артикля с именами существительными собственными.
Как общее правило, имена собственные употребляются без артикля. Это относится к именам, названиям улиц, дорог, площадей, городов, стран, состоящих из одного слова, континентов, озер, единичных островов и горных вершин, к названиям научных журналов, к словам, обозначающим звания, титулы.
Определенный артикль употребляется перед ними в следующих случаях:
- перед фамилиями во множественном числе: The Browns have left London.
- если перед названием страны присутствует существительное с предшествующим определением или имеются слова: республика, королевство, союз и пр.:
the British Empire, the United Kingdom
- перед названиями океанов, морей, рек, заливов: the Pacific Ocean, the Persian Galf, the Volga
- в названиях горных хребтов: the Alps
- перед названиями групп островов: the Bermudas
- перед названиями судов, газет: the “Titanic”, the Daily World
- перед названиями гостиниц, музеев, галерей, театров, кинотеатров: the “Savoy”, the Palace Theatre, the Odeon, the British Museum, the Tate Gallery.
- перед названиями с of: the Bank of England, the University of Salamanca.
- перед названием исторических документов: the Constitution, the Magna Carta.
- перед названием следующих городов, стран, улиц, местностей: the Hague (Гаага), the Netherlands, the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Transvaal, the Congo, the Argentine, the West Indies, the Reviera, the Lebanon, the High Street, the Mall, the Strand и др.
Если же в названиях есть имя или фамилия человека или название места, то артикль не употребляется (Buckingham Palace, Lloyds Bank, Cambridge University, Westminster Abbey)
Упр.1.1.7.a. Поставьте артикли a, an и the где необходимо.
a. _____ Statue of Liberty was a gift of friendship from _____ France to _____ United States.
b. No one in ____ Spanish class knew _____ correct answer to _____ Mrs Perez’s question.
c. ____ Lake Erie is one of _____ five Great Lakes in ____ North America.
d. On our trip to _____ Spain, we crossed ____ Atlantic Ocean.
e. While we were in ____ Alaska, we saw _____ Eskimo village.
f. David attended _____ Princeton University.
g. Harry has been admitted to ____ School of Medicine at ____ midwestern university.
h. ____ Queen Elizabeth II is _____ monarch of _____ Great Britain.
i. ____ Declaration of Independence was drawn up in 1776.
j. ____ Florida State University is smaller than ____ University of Florida.
k. ____ Heathrow is ____ busiest airport in Europe.
l. We arrived in ____ Paris on ____ third of August.
Упр.1.1.7.b. Поставьте the, где необходимо.
a. ____ Kevin lives in ____ Coronation Street.
b. Have you ever been to ____ National Theatre and ___ British Museum?
a. ____ Milan is a large city in ___ north of ____ Italy.
b. Have you ever been to _____ Hague ?
c. ____ Brussels is the capital of ____ Belgium.
d. ____ Manila is the capital of ____ Philippines.
e. There are two cinemas in our town - ____ Regan and ____ Plasa.
f. ____ Dr.Bradbury comes from a small village in ____ west of ___ Ireland.
g. ____ Rocky Mountains are in ____ North America.
h. ____ Texas is famous for oil and cowboys.
i. ”Where are you staying ?” “At ____ Intercontinental Hotel”.
j. ____ National Gallery is in ____ Trafalgar Square in ____ London.
k. In ____ London, ____ Houses of Parliament are beside ____ River Thames.
l. ____ Panama canal joins ____ Atlantic Ocean and ____ Pacific Ocean.
m. If you sail from ____ Britain to ____ Denmark you cross ____ North Sea.
Упр.1.1.7.c. Поставьте артикли, где необходимо.
I. ____ (1) King Juan Carlos of ____(2) Spain arrived in ____(3) London today for ____(4) three day visit to ____(5) United Kingdom. He was met by ____(6) Queen and drove with her to ____(7) Buckingham Palace. Tomorrow he will have lunch with ____(8) Governor of ____(9) Bank of England and in the evening he will have talks with businessmen.
II. On the first morning we went to ____(1) British Museum and had lunch at ____(2) MacDonalds in ____(3) Church Street. We looked in ____(4) Evening Standard newspaper and found there was a good film at ____(5) Odeon (cinema) near ____(6) Piccadilly Circus.
1.1.8. Обзорные упражнения.
При выполнении этих упражнений следует иметь в виду, что существует достаточно много случаев, так сказать, «немотивированного» употребления артиклей или их отсутствия. Часть из них упоминалась ранее. Напомним здесь еще некоторые устойчивые выражения, употребляющиеся с определенным артиклем: in the morning (evening, afternoon), the day before yesterday, in the country, on the one (other) hand, on the whole, to play the piano (the violin), to tell the truth, to run the risk, to catch the bus (to catch a train), to listen to the radio (to watch TV);
употребляющиеся без артикля: at home, by tram (train, bus, air), on foot, by heard, by chance, by means of, in/on time, on sale, on credit, from morning till night и др.
Упр.1.1.8.a. Поставьте артикли a, an или the, где необходимо.
a. I don’t usually like staying at ____ hotels, but last summer we spent a few days at ___ very nice hotel by___ sea.
b. ___ tennis is my favourite sport. I play once or twice ___ week if I can, but I’m not ___ very good player.
c. I won’t be home for ___ dinner this evening. I’m meeting some friends after ___ work and we’re going to ___ cinema.
d. ____ unemployment is very high at the moment and it’s very difficult for ___ people to find ___ work.
e. There was ___ accident as I was going ____ home last night. Two people were taken to ____ hospital. I think ___ most accidents are caused by ____ people driving too fast.
f. Carol is ___ economist. She used to work in ____ investment department of ____ Lloyds Bank. Now she works for ___ American bank in ___ United States.
g. “What’s ___name of ___ hotel where you’re staying?”
“____ Imperial. It’s in ___ Queen Street in ___ city centre. It’s near ___ station.
h. I have two brothers. ___ older one is training to be ___ pilot with ____ British Airways. ____ younger one is still at ___ school. When he leaves ____ school, he hopes to go to ____ university to study ____ law.
a. Excuse me. Is there ____ post office near here?
b. A We haven’t got any money.
B It’s all right. I’m going to ____ bank.
c. My wife and I went out for ____ meal last night. ____ food was excellent. I don’t usually like ____ Chinese food, but ____ duck was superb.
d. Has ____ postman been yet? I’m expecting ____ parcel.
e. We’ve moved to ____ lovely house in ____ country. It’s got ____ views of fields and hills, and there’s ____ garden at ____ back.
f. ____ government without ____ strong leader will not produce ____ good policies.
g. ____ government has introduced ____ law to ban ___ sale of ___ air guns to ____ people under ____ age eighteen.
a. In my job, I do____ business with people from all over the world.
b. I’m going to do ____ shopping. Do you want anything?
c. I was late for ____ work this morning.
d. Can you keep ____ secret? I’m getting married.
e. He got ____ sack because he was caught stealing money.
f. It isn’t easy, but I think we’re making ____ progress.
g. I lost ____ control of the car and crashed into a wall.
h. Make ____ love, not ____ war.
i. If you make ____ promise, you must keep it.
j. When buying a house, you should take into ____ consideration how near it is to public transport.
k. He set ____ fire to his factory so that he could claim the insurance.
l. You must make ____ effort to get to know your neighbours.
m. I’ve been to all the countries of Europe with ____ exception of Albania.
n. If you’re in Paris, take ____ opportunity to visit the Louvre.
a. ____ fog was so thick that we couldn’t see ____ side of ___ road. We followed ___ car in front of us and hoped that we were going ___ right way.
b. I don’t know what ____ price ___ owners are asking. But Dry and Rot are ___ agents. You could give them ___ ring and make them ___ offer.
c. ___ day after ___ day passed without ___ news, and we began to lose ___ hope.
d. “Would you like to hear ___ story about ___ Englishman, ___ Irishman and ___ Scotsman?”
“No, I’ve heard ____ stories about ___ Englishmen, ___ Irishmen and ___ Scotsmen before and they are all ___ same.”
“But mine is not ___ typical story. In my story ___ Scotsman is generous, ___ Irishman is logical and ___ Englishman is romantic.”
“Oh, if it’s ___ fantastic story. I’ll listen with ___ pleasure.”
a. ____ worry about ____ state of his finances drove him to ____ despair.
b. He sauntered down ____ streets without ____ worry in ____ world.
c. ____ main worry of ___ most people is ____ good health.
d. ____ news is just coming into ____ studio of ____ fire at ____ home of Mr Paul Beaston, ____ film Director.
e. I can’t wait to go on holiday. ____ sea, ____ sand and ____ books - that’s what I want.
f. I went to ____ theatre last night and saw ____ great play. I thought it was good, anyway, but I read in ____ papers this morning that ____ critics had slammed it.
g. ___ Paris of ___ 1980’s is nothing compared to ___ Paris of ___ 1968.
h. She was appointed ___ President of ___ National Union of ___ Printworkers.
i. ___ last year has been good for business.
j. ____ last year was good for business.
k. I decorated ___ children’s bedroom as fast as I could. In ___ week, I had finished.
l. I haven’t got time to phone him at the week-end. I’ll do it in ___ week.
a. ____ temperature varies with ____ pressure.
b. ____ scientists believe to have discovered ____ new compound.
c. ____ holes were spaced at ____ 10 foot intervals.
d. ____ reaction is similar to that observed by us.
e. In 1812 Berzelius advanced ____ theory of ____ chemical combination.
f. No sooner had ____ reaction stopped ____ precipitate turned black.
g. Such ___ stage is known as ____ “theoretical” stage or plate.
h. ____ compound II can be hydrolyzed to yield ___ free amine.
i. When being pure, ___ water is ___ colourless liquid.
j. ___ benzene is ____ stronger acid than ____ ethane.
Упр.1.1.8.b. Поставьте артикли a, an, the, или местоимение some, где необходимо.
a. There is ___ fly in ___ lemonade.
b. ____ youngest brother is at ____ school now.
c. ___ birds can fly very high in ___ sky.
d. ___ book on that shelf is ____ interesting one about ___ history.
e. It is pleasant to play ____ game of ____ tennis on ____ summer afternoon.
f. He makes ____ toys in the evening.
g. ___ butcher opposite ____ library always sells ___ good meat.
h. I am fond of ____ apples with ____ cheese.
i. ____ honesty is ____ best of all ____ virtues.
j. I should like to have ____ house in ____ country.
k. ___ car is ready.
l. Do you prefer ____ book of ____ poetry or ____ stories of ____ adventure?
m. Peter travelled in ____ third-class carriage with ____ Americans.
Упр.1.1.8.c. Поставьте a, an или one, где необходимо.
a. ___ of my friends advised me to take ___ taxi; another said that there was quite ___ good bus service.
b. “___ friend of mine lent me ___ book by Meredith. I’ve only ___ more chapter to read. Would you like ___ loan of it afterwards?”
“No, thanks. I read ___ of his books ___ few years ago and didn’t like it. Besides I have ___ library book to finish. If I don’t take it back tomorrow I’ll have to pay ___ fine.
c. Most people like ___ rest after ___ hard day’s work, but Tom seems to have ___ inexhaustible supply of energy.
d. I’ve told you ___ hundred times not to come into ___ room with ___ hat on.
e. You’ve been ___ great help to me; ___ day I will repay you.
f. My car broke down near ___ bus stop. There was ___ man waiting for ___ bus so I asked him for ___ advice.
g. He took ___ quick look at my car and said, “Buy ___ new ___.”
h. Most of the staff had been there for only ___ very short time, but ___ man had been there ___ year and ___ half, so he knew ___ little more than the rest.
i. ___ day a new director arrived. He was ___ ambitious, bad-tempered man, and the staff took ___ instant dislike to him.
Упр.1.1.8.d. Поставьте a, an, the или my, his, her, our, your, their, где необходимо.
a. ___ most of ___ stories that ___ people tell about ___ Irish aren’t true.
b. ___ married couple with ___ children often rent ___ cottage by ___ seaside for ___ summer holidays.
c. ___ men hire boats and go for ___ trip along ___ coast; ___ children spend ___ days on ___ beach and ___ poor mothers spend ___ most of ___ time doing ___ cooking and cleaning.
d. When ___ Titanic was crossing ___ Atlantic she struck an iceberg which tore a huge hole in her bow. ___ captain ordered ___ crew to help ___ passengers into ___ boats.
e. Everywhere ___ man has cut down ___ forests in order to cultivate ___ ground, or to use ___ wood as ___ fuel or as ___ building material.
f. But ____ interference with ___ nature often brings ____ disaster. ___ tree-felling sometimes turns ___ fertile land into a dustbowl.
g. ___ people think that ___ lead is ___ heaviest metal, but ___ gold is heavier.
h. You can fool some of ___ people all ___ time, and all ___ people some of ___ time; but you cannot fool all ___ people all ___ time.
i. Why are you standing here with ___ hands in ___ pockets?
j. At most meetings ___ people vote by raising ___ right hands.
k. The bullet struck him in ___ foot.
l. Someone threw ___ egg which struck the speaker on ___ shoulder.
m. He was ___ very tall man with ___ dark hair and ___ small beard, but I couldn’t see ___ eyes because he was wearing ___ dark glasses.
n. She pulled him by ___ sleeve to attract his attention.
o. He is ___ thoroughly selfish man; he wouldn’t lift ___ finger to help anyone.
p. We have a very good train service from here to ___ city centre and most people go to ___ work by train. You can go by ___ bus too, of course, but you can’t get a season ticket on ___ bus.
q. “I’d like to see ___ Mr Smith please.” “Do you mean ___ Mr Smith who works in ___ box office or ___ other Mr Smith?”
Упр.1.1.8.e. Исправьте ошибки, связанные с артиклями.
a. Jane, has anyone ever told you that you’ve got some lovely fingers?
b. I’m very interested in the history, especially the history of Western Europe.
c. What a lovely weather we’re having! It’s such a nice day!
d. We’re trying to sell our house. People came to see it on Saturday, and they were quite interested, but some people who saw it on Sunday morning were very rude and said they didn’t like it at all.
e. Did you remember to buy a bread while you were out at some shops?
f. Crossing the English Channel can be quite unpleasant in the bad weather.
g. People who live on the floor above ours work in a government ministry.
h. What’s the government going to do about the unemployment?
Упр.1.1.8.f. В 10 предложениях артикль the употреблен правильно, а в 10 - неправильно. Найдите неправильные предложения и исправьте их.
a. He lived in United States for ten years.
b. John has cut the leg and needs the stitches.
c. The camera I bought yesterday doesn’t work.
d. William Wordsworth is famous for his poems about nature.
e. It was first time I had crossed equator.
f. This is only one left but you can have it.
g. Frank does a lot of work for the disabled.
h. I will be visiting the Netherlands next month.
i. Society doesn’t care enough for old people.
j. This is the same film I saw last week.
k. The worst thing was not knowing exactly what had happened.
l. Harder we work, more money we make.
m. Smiths are coming round to dinner tonight.
n. The aeroplane is one of the greatest inventions of the twentieth century.
o. It’s very disappointing news but that’s the life.
p. Eating the chocolate always gives me pimples on my face.
q. What is on radio this afternoon?
r. John plays the football very well.
s. The furniture was sold at auction.
t. He was sent to prison for life.
*Упр.1.1.8.g. Поставьте артикли, где необходимо.
a. What ___ strange feeling it was to be going home when it was not home, and to find that every object I looked at reminded me of ___ happy old home which was like ___ dream I could never dream again.
b. ___ one thing that really interested him in connection with his parents was ___ existence somewhere in ___ east in ___ small city called Lycurgus … of ___ uncle, ___ brother of his father’s.
c. But ___ bed I made up for myself was sufficiently uncomfortable to give me ___ wakeful night, and I thought ___ good deal of what ___ unlucky Dutchman had told me.
d. ___ English of ___ 14th century differs from ___ Modern English.
e. ___ walls, down which ran ___ number and variety of ___ pipes and cables, were painted in two contrasting of green - dark up to ___ height of five foot, lighter above that.
f. ___ London train was on ___ point of ___ departure. It was yet ___ early morning, ___ hour of ___ milkmen and ___ postmen. ___ station had ___ chill, unused, deserted look; ___ passengers were few.
g. And now he was in ___ large bedroom overlooking ___ Thames, ___ chamber with ___ writing table, ___ sofa, ___ telephone, ____ electric bells and ___ massive oak door with ___ lock and ___ key in ___ lock.
h. ___ sun comes up from ___ East and goes down to ___ West.
i. Mr Skimpole could play ___ piano and ___ violoncello; and he was ___ composer, had composed half ___ opera once, and played what he composed with ___ taste. After ___ tea we had quite ___ little concert, in which Richard and Mr Jarndyce and I were ___ audience.
*Упр.1.1.8.h. В текстах поставьте артикли, где необходимо.
I. Lovesick teenager snatched from cliff.
____(1) lovesick teenager, threatening to jump seventy feet from ____(2) cliffs at ____(3) seaside resort, was saved by ____(4) human chain of ____(5) policemen today.
____(6) eighteen-year old had driven from his home in ____(7) Lake District to Langhorn, near ___(8) Bouremouth, to talk his girlfriend out of breaking off their three-month romance.
He threatened to jump off ____(9) balcony at her house, but when she dialled ____(10) 999 he dashed to ___(11) edge of ____(12) cliffs below ____(13) Metropole Hotel.
____(14) police found him sitting on ____(15) edge. They chatted to him for twenty minutes in ____(16) darkness, then clung together and grabbed him.
He was later released after _____(17) treatment by ____(18) hospital doctor.
____(19) police spokesman said, “There was ____(20) high wind, it was pitch dark at about 2 a.m., and ___(21) grass on ____(22) cliff top was wet and slippery. It was ____(23) brave rescue.”
“It was ____(24) case of ____(25) unrequited love. The youngster was upset after his romance broke up, but he has now recovered his senses.”
II. You can't teach managers.
___(1) Harvard Business School is ___(2) ark of the tabernacle in ___(3) management education. ___(4) many schools more or less ape the HBS, especially its “case study” method of ___(5) instruction - though mulling over ___(6) out -of-date business anecdotes is about as helpful in ___(7) actual management as waging war by tramping over ___(8) old battlefields. ____(9) specific management element in these mind-bending studies is hard to isolate. Although ___(10) managers should be numerate (and many are not), they don’t require ___(11) skills in ___(12) higher algebra; and ___(13) many great businesses have been created by ___(14) men who all but count on their ___(15) fingers. ___(16) story tells of ___(17) two schoolboy friends, one brilliant at ___(18) maths, one innumerate to the point of idiocy, who meet much later when ___(19) first is ___(20) professor and ___(21) second ___(22) multi-millionaire. Unable to control his ___(23) curiosity, ___(24) professor asks ___(25) figure-blind dunderhead how he managed to amass his fortune. “It’s simple”, replies ___(26) Midas. “I buy ___(27) things at $1 and sell them for $2, and from that 1% difference make ___(28) living.”
For most of ___(1) past two and ___(2) half million years ___(3) human beings left their garbage where it fell. Oh, they sometimes tidied up their sleeping and activity areas, but that was about all. This disposal scheme functioned adequately, because ___(4) hunters and ___(5) gatherers frequently abandoned their campgrounds to follow ___(6) game or find new stands of plants. ___(7) man faced his first garbage crisis when he become ___(8) sedentary animal - when, rather than move himself, he chose to move his garbage.
___(1) West Germany funds ___(2) large share of its social welfare outlays, as it did in Bismarck’s time, through ___(3) regressive payroll taxes. Like ___(4) Sweden, it uses ___(5) tax incentives to lower certain burdens on ___(6) wealthy. ___(7) capital gains on ___(8) stocks and bonds, subject to ___(9) tax of up to 33 percent in ___(10) United States, are exempt in ___(11) West Germany - as well as ___(12) Netherlands, ___(13) Belgium, and ___(14) Japan. (But ___(15) United States, virtually alone among ___(16) Western nations, leaves gains from ___(17) sale of one’s home, in most cases, untouched.) In ___(18) France, one of ___(19) most heavily taxed nations in ___(20) Europe, ___(21) successive governments after ___(22) World War II clung to ___(23) tradition of ___(24) indirect taxation. ___(25) France adopted ___(26) value added tax (VAT), ___(27) consumption tax on goods and services, in 1954.
There are ___(1) several sources of ___ (2) funds. One source is ____ (3) commercial bank such as ___ (4) Citibank, Chase, Chemical and ___ (5) others. Any money you get from such ___ (6) source would be borrowed and only on ___ (7) short-term basis ___ (8) bank would become ___ (9) creditor of yours, not ___ (10) owner. Another possibility is ___ (11) venture capital firm, whose sole purpose is to invest in ___ (12) young, promising companies. To secure ___ (13) funds from such ___(14) firm, you would have to prepare ___ (15) convincing business plan for ___ (16) expected operation, showing ___ (17) return you expect on ___ (18) investment and how you intend to make it. Among ___ (19) other requirements, ___ (20) venture capital firm will expect you to incorporate. What does ___ (21) venture capitalist get out of ___ (22) investing in your company? ___ (23) sizable percentage of ____ (24) ownership.
___(25) third source of ___(26) funds is ___(27) investment banker, who can help you raise ___(28) money through ___(29) sale of ____(30) securities, only if ___(31) company is incorporated.